Contents
Peacemaking


Foreword by Howard Zehr 15

Author’s Preface 19

Introduction 21

PART ONE: THE LAW AND PEACEMAKING

  • 1 LAWYERS AS PEACEMAKERS 29
  • The Current, Narrow View of Lawyers as Peacemakers 29

    The American Legal Profession—A Short History &127 32

    The Adversary Ideology 36

    The Myth of Redemptive Violence 38

    Legal Training and Law Students 44

    A New Paradigm 44

    Reflections on Chapter 1 48

  • 2 CONCEPTS OF PEACEMAKING 49
  • What Is Peacemaking? 50

    Ten Principles of Peacemaking 52

    Relationship Between Peace and Conflict 54

    Reconciliation or Therapy? 56

    Peacemaking and Mediation 57

    The Lawyer as Counselor and Representative 59

    Reflections on Chapter 2 61

    PART TWO: CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROCESSES

  • 3 CONFLICT RESOLUTION MODELS AND PROCESSES 65
  • Introduction • 65

    The Four-Way Model of Conflict Resolution 66

    Coercion

    Controlled Escalation

    Outside Authority

    Agreement-Based Processes

    Process Choice

    Power, Rights, and Interests 74

    Comparing the Models

    Peacemaking—A Synthesis of Models 77

    Conclusion 78

    Reflections on Chapter 3 78

  • 4 MEDIATION ORIENTATION 80
  • Introduction 80

    A Brief History 82

    Orientation to Process 85

    Some Terminology Issues

    Riskin’s Grid

    Covet and Love’s Model

    Strategic Choice Model

    Evaluative Mediation

    Arguments Supporting Evaluative Mediation

    Critiques of Evaluative Mediation

    Facilitative Mediation

    Orientation to Outcome 100

    Problem-Solving Orientation

    Transformative Orientation

    Narrative Orientation

    Comparison of Orientations

    A Theory of Mediation 106

    Conclusion 108

    Reflections on Chapter 4 109

    PART THREE: UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT

  • 5 HUMAN NATURE 113
  • Philosophical Views of Humankind 113

    Introduction

    Early Views

    Modern Views

    Some Recurring Philosophical Themes

    Psychological Views of Human Nature—Freud to Rogers 136

    Freud

    Harry Stack Sullivan-Interpersonal Psychoanalysis

    Object Relations

    Behaviorism

    Humanistic Psychology

    Synthesizing Perspectives on Human Nature 145

    Reflections on Chapter 5 146

  • 6 THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF CONFLICT 150
  • Orientation to Brain Function and Anatomy 151

    Automaticity 156

    The Cognitive Operators 159

    Emotion 164

    Historical Studies of Emotion

    Characteristics of Emotion

    Types of Emotion

    Emotional Control

    Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators 178

    Conclusion 183

    Reflections on Chapter 6 185

  • 7 IDENTITY 186
  • The Neurological Foundations of Identity 189

    The Proto-Self

    Core Consciousness

    The Autobiographical Self

    Cognitive Psychodynamics 192

    Schemas

    Relationships

    Personal Identity, Face, and Impression Management 194

    Social Identity 200

    How the Legal System Escalates Identity Conflicts 205

    Reflections on Chapter 7 207

  • 8 RELIGION AND CONFLICT 208
  • A True Story of Law and Religion 208

    Introduction 211

    Neurotheology 212

    What Is Religion? 217

    Religion and Cosmology 218

    The Binary View: Good Versus Evil

    The Abstractive View: Evil as the Corruption of Good

    The Wholistic View: The Unitary Universe

    Salvation 221

    Judaism and Salvation

    Christian Salvation

    Islamic Concepts of Salvation

    Hindu Concepts of Salvation

    Religion, Politics, and Cultural Identity 224

    Lawyers, Peacemaking, and Religion 228

    Reflections on Chapter 8 231

  • 9 CONFLICT AND CULTURE 233
  • Defining Culture 233

    Misconceptions About Culture 234

    Analyzing Culture and Conflict 236

    Culture and Emotion 239

    Cultural Schemas 240

    Gender and Conflict 244

    Three Themes of American Culture 245

    Competition and Conflict

    Individualism and Conflict

    Politics and Conflict

    Conclusion 260

    Reflections on Chapter 9 261

  • 10 JUSTICE 262
  • Introduction 262

    Why Justice?

    Common Threads of Justice

    Classical Theories of Justice 265

    The Positive Law Theory of Justice

    The Social Good Theory of Justice

    The Natural Right Theory of Justice

    What Is Justice?

    Classical Justice, and Peacemaking 273

    Justice, Identity, and Cooperation 274

    Can Peacemaking Provide Justice?—Critiques 278

    Restorative Justice 282

    Conclusion 286

    Reflections on Chapter 10 287

  • 11 CONFLICT BEHAVIOR 288
  • Theoretical Considerations 288

    Conflict Schemas

    Blake and Mouton’s Conflict Management Grid

    Integrative and Distributive Outcomes

    Goal Concerns and Conflict Goals

    Conflict Goals

    Conflict Escalation 302

    Social Processes

    Psychological Processes

    Rational Thinking and Intractable Conflicts 308

    Conclusion 311

    Reflections on Chapter 11 312

    PART FOUR: CONFLICT ANALYSIS

  • 12 CONFLICT THEORY 317
  • Sociology and Conflict Theory 318

    Marx and Weber: The Conflict Tradition in Sociology

    Exchange Theory

    Social Constructionism and Social Interactionism

    A Social Power View of Conflict 328

    The Nature of Social Power

    Sources of Power Capacity

    Other Theories of Conflict 332

    Human Needs Theory

    Integrating Theories

    Conclusion 334

    Reflections on Chapter 12 335

  • 13 GAME THEORY 336
  • Economic Theory vs. Game Theory 337

    Cooperative vs. Noncooperative Games 338

    Elements of a Game 339

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma 340

    Equilibrium 343

    Definition

    Dominant Strategy

    The Nash Equilibrium

    Focal Points

    Equilibrium and Mediation

    Game Theory and Social Dilemmas 348

    Information 352

    Common Knowledge

    Perfect vs. Imperfect Information

    Certain vs. Uncertain Information

    Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Information

    Complete vs. Incomplete Information

    Dynamic Games with Asymmetric Information

    Information and Efficiency

    Cooperative Games 358

    Conclusion 362

    Reflections on Chapter 13 363

  • 14 CONFLICT ANALYSIS 364
  • Introduction 000

    Systems Approach to Conflict Analysis 364

    Structural Approaches to Conflict Analysis 368

    Conflict Parties

    Conflict Goals

    Power Analysis

    History and Context

    Climate

    Escalation History

    Preparing a Conflict Map 381

    Reflections on Chapter 14 382

    PART FIVE: PEACEMAKING

  • 15 ETHICS 385
  • Introduction 385

    Ethical Codes Generally 386

    Sources of Ethical Standards 387

    SPIDR-AAA-ABA Model Standards

    CPR-Georgetown Commission

    Special Ethical Considerations 399

    Confidentiality

    Situations of Extreme Power Imbalance

    Unauthorized Practice of Law

    Conclusion 410

    Reflections on Chapter 15 411

  • 16 APOLOGY AND FORGIVENESS 412
  • Introduction 412

    The Nature of Apology and Forgiveness 414

    Appeasement and Account

    Apology

    Forgiveness

    Impediments to Apology 419

    Cultural Issues

    Structural Legal Issues

    Apology as an Admission of Fault/Liability

    Apology and Attorneys

    To Propose or Not Propose Apology 437

    Conclusion 437

    Reflections on Chapter 16 438

  • 17 PRINCIPLES OF PEACEMAKING 439
  • Introduction 439

    The Peacemaker as a Leader 441

    The Momentum of Agreement

    The Commitment to Cooperation

    Managing Information

    Maintaining Safety, Order, and Security

    Empathic Communication 451

    Process Choice and the Escalation Stages 455

    De-Escalation

    Processes for De-Escalation

    Conclusion 459

    Reflections on Chapter 17 459

    Final Word 461

    Notes 463

    References 465

    The Author 475


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    Copyright 2003 by Cascadia Publishing House
    04/15/03